U.S. Foundation Archives: An Endangered Species (Part 2)
January 24, 2013
In an earlier post, I reported on the findings of a December 2012 survey by the Commonwealth Fund of foundations' current archiving practices. It is of considerable concern that no more than 20 percent of even large foundations (those with assets of $240 million or more) maintain archives, given the importance of historical records to researchers and helping to assure accountability and good management in the sector.
A review of the literature, the survey findings, and conversations with leading archivists and foundation officers suggest ways in which the state of archiving in the foundation sector could be improved. Here are a dozen for your consideration:
1. The number of foundations currently maintaining archives is far fewer than it should be, and foundation boards and executives should give more attention to the issue than they do now. Audit and compliance committees of foundation boards should ensure that at least the short-term records-retentions policy required by Sarbanes-Oxley is developed and enforced and should take an active role in seeing that the question of archiving important records is addressed at the board level.
2. Chief executive officers of foundations should see one of their responsibilities as assessing the foundation's need for archives and, if the decision is affirmative, delegating clear responsibility for their development and maintenance.
3. Boards and managements should see that resources are set aside as needed to achieve archiving objectives. The 2012 survey reveals that most foundations will find that maintaining archives, if done efficiently, is not a major expense.
4. Every foundation should have a stated archiving policy -- even if it is "none" -- to ensure that the question has been addressed. Policies should specify which records are to be preserved, archiving model to be pursued (in-house vs. outsourced), access guidelines and restrictions, and guidelines for paper and electronic preservation. Archiving policies should ensure that the intensity of the archiving effort varies with the potential value of materials to users. The policy should be reviewed every five years to ensure that it keeps up with advances in information storage technology.
5. Archives are a "glasspockets" issue, and the Council on Foundations should be encouraged to include maintenance of archives among its best-practice guidelines for foundations above some minimum endowment size.
6. Outsourcing the archiving function to an external archive center is a viable option that many foundations, including multi-billion dollar ones, should consider. The choice of external center, however, must be made with care and performance monitored regularly. Important questions include the following: Do the foundations or other organizations that are currently donating archival records to the external center share similar objectives and expectations? Does the external center have other significant collections that provide a valuable context for the foundation's archive? Can the center meet the foundation's expectations regarding the speed with which records are processed, provided with online finding aids, and opened to researchers? Does the archival institution have the capacity to manage the long-term preservation of digital records and to provide access to them?
7. Many foundations, especially small and newer ones, may find that their archiving objectives going forward can be met with cloud-based content management systems that can be adapted in various ways for use by external researchers.
8. Two-thirds of larger foundations were established after 1989, but youth should be no excuse for postponing the question of whether to archive or not. Indeed, young foundations are in the enviable position of being on the ground floor with respect to technology and often start out with state-of-the art information systems in which virtually all their records are kept digitally. Under these circumstances, archives are almost a natural byproduct of a good information system and entail minimal marginal cost.
9. Spend-down foundations are prone to establish archives, but they often confront the issue only as the date of their sunset becomes imminent. Ideally, the question should be addressed early in a foundation's life.
10. Information technology staff of foundations should have as one of their major responsibilities the development of systems within the foundation that advance archiving objectives. They should work closely with the external archive center, when the foundation uses one, to coordinate and promote IT initiatives.
11. An affinity group of foundation officers with responsibility for archives (in-house or outsourced) would greatly advance the spread of best practices in the sector. Foundations without archives reported in the 2012 survey that if there were a foundation-led group developing archiving standards and guidelines and providing information on consultants and experienced-based advice on technical issues, they would be better equipped to activate nascent plans for establishing archives.
12. Most importantly, consideration should be given to development of archive cooperatives by a consortia of foundations with common interests and archiving objectives. It is doubtful that existing archive centers have the capacity to take on large numbers of new foundation clients. Given the enormous number of foundations, inter-regional differences, and frequent commonality of interests at the regional level, multiple foundation archive coops might well be easier to launch and operate than a single national one. If the concept were to be judged promising, it could be piloted and capitalized by a few very large foundations in an "early adopter region" -- with replication of the model in other regions justified by the experience of the pilot.
In giving inadequate attention to the preservation of its historical records, the foundation sector is shortchanging historians and researchers of public policy, social movements, and important institutions and individuals who made a difference in their time. Above all, foundations are shortchanging themselves, by not ensuring that records exist for learning from experience and demonstrating their worth to society. It's time for the sector to address these shortcomings.
-- John E. Craig, Jr.